Recommended Reading Author Anonymous; story was crafted and reworked by various Mesopotamian cultures including the Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians, and Assyrians; original story likely dates back to around the time of King Gilgamesh of Uruk c. As punishment, the gods send him a companion, Enkidu, who is his mirror image and becomes his good friend. Together, Gilgamesh and Enkidu defy the gods by killing the giant Humbaba, cutting down the sacred cedar forest which he guards, and killing the Bull of Heaven. Enkidu has ominous dreams of the destiny of tyrants who become slaves in the House of Death.
The Sumerian city-states were often at war with one another. Stele of the Vultures, portraying Eannatum sovereign troops in the conquest of Umma. The first of these conflicts known to history concerns King Eannatum of Lagash, who defeated the rival city-state of Umma in a border dispute sometime around B.
Under Eannatum, Lagash went on to conquer the whole of Sumer, but it was just one of several city-states that held sway over Mesopotamia during its history. The infighting led to several military advancements—the Sumerians may have invented the phalanx formation and siege warfare—but it also left them vulnerable to invasions by outside forces.
During the latter stages of their history, they were attacked or conquered by the Elamites, Akkadians and Gutians.
The Sumerians were famously fond of beer.
|Sumerian Social System - Crystalinks||History Four periods of Sumerian can be distinguished:|
|Sumerian Religion||They lived in independent walled city-states.|
A clay seal depicting beer drinking in a banquet scene dating from B. Archaeologists have found evidence of Mesopotamian beer-making dating back to the fourth millennium B.
The brewing techniques they used are still a mystery, but their preferred ale seems to have been a barley-based concoction so thick that it had to be sipped through a special kind of filtration straw.
Cuneiform writing was used for over 3, years. Bill of sale written in cuneiform. In its most sophisticated form, it consisted of several hundred characters that ancient scribes used to write words or syllables on wet clay tablets with a reed stylus. The tablets were then baked or left in the sun to harden.
The Sumerians seem to have first developed cuneiform for the mundane purposes of keeping accounts and records of business transactions, but over time it blossomed into a full-fledged writing system used for everything from poetry and history to law codes and literature.
Since the script could be adapted to multiple languages, it was later used over the course of several millennia by more than a dozen different cultures. In fact, archaeologists have found evidence that Near East astronomical texts were still being written in cuneiform as recently as the first century A.
The Sumerians were well-traveled trade merchants. A detail from the so called Standard of Ur, side B. This panel shows a banquet, perhaps after a victory and men driving cattle and sheep. Their most important commercial partner may have been the island of Dilmun present day Bahrainwhich held a monopoly on the copper trade, but their merchants also undertook months-long journeys to Anatolia and Lebanon to gather cedar wood and to Oman and the Indus Valley for gold and gemstones.
The Sumerians were particularly fond of lapis lazuli—a blue-colored precious stone used in art and jewelry—and there is evidence that they may have roamed as far as Afghanistan to get it. The hero of the Epic of Gilgamesh was probably a real Sumerian historical figure.
Chalky alabaster statue of Gilgamesh, king of Uruk.The ancient Sumerians, particularly prior to the unification of the Sumerian city-states by Sargon of Akkad and the rise of the Akkadian, Babylonian, and Assyrian empires, are a fascinating people to study for their wholly pragmatic and spiritual worldviews.
The Sumerians were well-traveled trade merchants. A detail from the so called Standard of Ur, side B. This panel shows a banquet, perhaps after a victory and men driving cattle and sheep.
Early Numeration - John Alan Halloran - August 10, - Page 1 Early Numeration - Tally Sticks, Counting Boards, and Sumerian Proto-Writing.
The Minister for Transport in Iraq made a controversial speech at the inauguration of a new airport in southern Dhi Qar, in which he stated that ancient Sumerians built the first airports 7, years ago and launched spaceships from there to explore other planets.
A history of Ancient Sumer (Sumeria)including its Cities, Kings, Mythologies, Sciences, Religions, Writings, Culture, Cuneiform and Contributions. Index of Egyptian History. Egyptian history constitutes an awesome period of time. Including the Ptolemies, it covers at least three thousand years (c .